Unpacking Software Development Lifecycle Models

Unpacking Software Development Lifecycle Models


SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle and is also known as the Application Development Life-Cycle. SDLC describes the phases (often used in IT and Systems) of planning, creating, testing, and deploying a process or information system. There are different types, or more accurately, different elements of types of SDLC models used. The most common ones are Waterfall, Iterative, Spiral, V-shaped as well as the Agile model.

System Development Lifecycle (SDLC)

As I’ve mentioned in a previous article, Tools to Create Effective Project Plans, I’ve used many different SDLC models for a variety of projects, including helping start-ups with business plans, building marketing strategies, supporting change management, developing IT solutions as well as building and tracking e-commerce sites and social media campaigns.

Regardless of which SDLC model you use, there are six key stages in the SDLC cycle:

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development and Testing
  • Implementation
  • Documentation, and;
  • Evaluation

The beauty of the more agile SDLC models (excluding Waterfall and V-Shape) is through the methodology; you can go backwards and forwards between steps and adjust where necessary.

Waterfall Model

“The Waterfall model is the pioneer of the SDLC processes.” Softwaretestinghelp.com

The Waterfall model is a Sequential model as the software development processes are split into phases and each phase has to be completed before the next step can be taken. A step-by-step overview of the phases is as follows: Requirement analysis, system design, implementation, system testing, system development and system analysis.

Introduced in 1970 by Winston Royce, the model works well when implemented in a stable environment and it is best used for smaller projects. If your needs are straightforward the Waterfall model will yield the best results but it is not right for big jobs requiring agile changes.


The Iterative Model

“During software development, more than one iteration of the software development cycle may be in progress at the same time.” Defense Systems Software Development

According to Andrew Powell-Morse over five decades ago the US Air Force and NASA worked together to develop X-15 hypersonic aircraft. They began by following an Iterative design process and the positive results of this prompted NASA to implement an Iterative SDLC model for their software development.

The Iterative model differs from the rigid stages of the Waterfall model and is described as a cyclical process, rather than a step by step one. There’s the initialisation phase at the start and the deployment at the end and in many small steps in between which may be repeated and fine tuned including: Planning – requirements – design – implementation – verification and evaluation.

Because this model is agile and quickly implemented this helps to show up any functional or design flaws early on in the process, but it’s not suitable for small projects. It is also worth noting that as not all requirements are gathered in the beginning of the entire life cycle it can be heavy on resources, management and budget.


The Spiral Model

“The Spiral is a risk-driven model which means that the overall success of a project highly depends on the risks analysis phase.” Dmitry Gurendo

Using the Spiral models involved both sequential and prototype processes.  It is a complex model and best understood by first being broken down into four main quadrants:

  1. Planning Phase
  2. Risk Analysis Phase
  3. Engineering Phase
  4. Evaluation Phase.

The model is known as Spiral because the development processes repeatedly passes through these stages and each iteration is called a Spiral. During the Risk Analysis in Phase Two, for example, all the four phases – planning, risk analysis, engineering and evaluation are repeated.

When working with the Spiral Model, “Team members try to gather the product objectives, requirements (e.g. Business Requirement Specifications or BRS, System Requirement Specifications or SRS), alternatives in design, etc,” explains Dmitry Gurendo, “In the subsequent spirals; all requirements are generated according to the customer’s feedback. Thus, permanent communication between the customer and project management is crucial.”

Use of the Spiral Model is recommended for large projects where software requires continuous risk evaluation and changes. Although development can be fast, Spiral can also go on infinitely. The time during the Risk Analysis Phase is too detailed for low-risk projects and the planning, resetting objectives, risk analysis, and prototyping needs to be carefully managed with users being involved early on with the prototyping tools and subsequently at every other stage.


V-Shaped Model

“As the industry has evolved, the technologies have become more complex, increasingly faster, and forever changing, however, there remains a set of basic principles and concepts that are as applicable today as when IT was in its infancy.” Geeks For Geeks

Also called the Verification and Validation model, the V-Shaped Model is an extension of the Waterfall model, with testing stages adhered to during each development phase.  On the one side of the model are the Verification phases with the Validation phases on the other side, these are linked by coding phase which gives the model its “V” shape.

Testing in the V-Shaped Model is done in a hierarchical perspective so what it’s needed by the project team, for example, informs the high level and detailed design phases. As each of these phases is completed the requirements, they are defining become more and more refined and detailed.

Detractors of the V-Shaped Model say it puts too much emphasis on testing, particularly during the test planning phase, which  leads to testing being “squeezed into tight windows” at the end of development when initial phases have taken longer than expected but the date of implementation has to be the same.

Supporters argue that over time the V-Shaped Model has changed and with proper understanding it can support flexibility and agility throughout the development process. It is interesting to note that the V-Shaped Model is, in some areas, being adopted by the medical device industry. This, according to Barriers to Adopting Agile Practices When Developing Medical Device Software, is because it leans towards the principles of documentation, maintaining traceability and regulatory compliances.

Agile Model

“Agile methodologies were developed as a solution to the challenges of the traditional Waterfall model of software development and the traditional project and team management principles.” Jacob Aliet Ondiek

In Jacob Aliet Ondiek’s article, 12 Agile Manifesto Principles, he unpacks how there was a shift towards more agile methodologies by prioritising the following:

  • More focus on individuals and interactions above processes and tools
  • Correctly built software over vast amounts of documentation and,
  • Client collaboration over contract wrangling, and;
  • Valuing responsiveness to change instead of adhering to a rigid model.

In fact, in Utah, USA in 2001, 17 software developers actually put together The Agile Manifesto to define their basic principles and from this emerged different Agile methodologies including (with reference to Smartsheet’s Comprehensive Guide to the Agile Manifesto Scrum) the dynamic systems development method (DSDM), crystal clear, extreme programming (aka “XP”), adaptive software development and feature-driven development.

The Agile Model does as it says and has agile back and forth communications between the cores phases of: Requirements, architecture and design, development and test and feedback.

Interestingly, the developers of the Manifesto back in 2001 saw the model as something to be used by software development teams develop code more efficiently but now a lot of the Agile Model methodologies are being used across a variety of different businesses.

I’ve found what Dave Sharrock, VP of Agile42, says to be true of our consulting business as well: “We’re seeing more and more [agile-oriented consulting business] being brought in by business managers or leadership teams with the need to bring in the whole product portfolio – the product development process  – into an agile way of working.”



Jainita Khatri, Managing Director, Prana Business Consulting

Written by Jainita Khatri. She is the founder of Prana Business Consulting and has 15 years of practical experience in marketing for blue chip organisations and has consulted extensively with entrepreneurial and medium sized businesses. Jainita’s passion lies in digital marketing – helping businesses to build their brands and businesses. Jainita is a speaker at conferences and guest lectures Monash University and UJ on various marketing related topics.

About Prana Business Consulting

Prana Business Consulting is a marketing partner to your business.  Using omni-channel principles, Prana builds a connection between your brand and your client. Prana drives high performance and tangible results in Marketing, Branding, CRM and Social Media. Prana leverages industry specialists to deliver customized solutions for baby, beauty, health and wellness brands, locally and internationally. Prana is a level 1 BBBEE certified company.

Email: info@pranabusinessconsulting.com.www82.jnb2.host-h.net

Phone: +27 (0) 11 794 1409 / + 27 (0) 83 414 9796

Facebook / YouTube / Twitter / LinkedIn

Eight Tools to Create Project Plans and Deliver Marketing Success

Anyone with a business strives for success but not everyone systematically implements the project plan tools which are readily available to assist with marketing. This may be because many of the resources seem too academic or perhaps it’s the sheer volume of information which is daunting. In this article I highlight eight tools which can be used to create a solid project plan, helping create the strategic backbone to marketing success.

For project plans to produce the desired results they need to integrate, support and inform marketing strategy, development and direction. A project plan can be made up of one or more of the business tools below which include matrices and models to help identify almost every aspect of a business, from brand purpose, role players, actions, insights, competitors and company growth.


1) Project Charter


“If you don’t know where you are going. How can you expect to get there?” Basil S. Walsh

Creating a Project Charter is recommended for someone in project management who needs to identify, get buy in, track and measure a specific project. It outlines the:

  • Breadth of project
  • Goals
  • Who is involved and their responsibilities.

A Project Charter should:

  • Encapsulate the project’s purpose
  • Keep the people involved on the same page
  • Be a contract between the project sponsor, key stakeholders and the project team.

SmartSheet has Project Charter useful templates available for free download in word or excel.



2) Project Plan


“Plans are worthless. Planning is essential.” Dwight D. Eisenhower


While a Project Charter is an overview of a project, often to get buy in and approval for the framework, a Project Plan works on the approved structure and framework of the charter.

Bright Hub Project Management outlines the following points on how a Project Plan assists with the specific detail on executing, managing and controlling:

  • Project Value Proposition
  • People involved and their responsibilities
  • Business structure
  • What needs to be done
  • Phases, activities and tasks
  • Identification the work breakdown structure (WBS)
  • Allocation of resources
  • Time lines and milestones or critical path schedule (CPS)
  • Documentation of project inter-dependencies.

There are various ways to create a Project Plan but the traditional Microsoft Project Templates always work effectively, or explore the option of using a free Gantt Chart template.


3) Project Plan Scope Triangle


“Time is the most valuable thing a man can spend.” Theophrastus


The Scope Triangle has been used in project training programmes for over 25 years and is a useful tool to use when looking at the three “primary forces” of a project as well as if, when and where a “trade off” between them is necessary:

  • Time
  • Quality

As Nick Jenkins, from Project Smart says, “The best project managers will juggle all three like hot potatoes and will make decisions every day which effectively trade-off time versus quality versus resources.”


4) Ansoff’s Matrix


“Management is, above all, a practice where art, science, and craft meet.” Henry Mintzberg


This strategic planning tool dates back to the 1960s and is named after its creator, Russian American mathematician and business manager, Harry Igor Ansoff, also known as the “father of strategic management”.

The Matrix is based on Ansoff’s definition of product-market strategy as being: “A joint statement of a product line and the corresponding set of missions which the products are designed to fulfil.” Within the axis of existing / new markets and existing /new products are:

  • Market penetration
  • Market development
  • Product development and;

The benefit of using Ansoff’s Matrix (also known as the Product/Market Expansion Grid) is that it can be used to, as MindTools explains, “Identify alternative growth strategies by looking at present and potential products in current and future markets.”


5) The Boston Matrix

“The major reason for setting a goal is for what it makes of you to accomplish it. What it makes of you will always be the far greater value than what you get.” Jim Rohn


The Boston Matrix uses the axis of Relevant Market Share in relation to Relevant Market Growth to chart portfolios within a business, defined as:

  • Dogs – Products with low growth or market share
  • Question Marks or Problem Child – Products in high growth markets with low market share
  • Stars – Products in high growth markets with high market share
  • Cash Cows – Products in low growth markets with high market share.

I’ve included this matrix as it is useful for companies with separate business units or diverse products, but as Strategic Management Insights points out, it needs to be used by following these steps –

  • Choose the unit
  • Define the market
  • Calculate relative market share
  • Find out market growth rate, and;
  • Draw the circles on a matrix.



6) Gartner’s Hype Cycle


“Realistically, the world (and the technology) aren’t quite ready for autonomous flying taxis.” Kasey Panetta

Unlike most of the tools on this list, Gartner’s Hype Cycle positions us firmly in the 21st Century. It’s described as, “A graphic representation of the maturity and adoption of technologies and applications, and how they are potentially relevant to solving real business problems and exploiting new opportunities.” But, more simply put, it’s positioning your product or business within a technology curve of expectation and time to see where it is / isn’t potentially relevant to the marketplace.

Gatner’s project tool drills down into the five key phases of a technology’s life cycle:

  • Innovation Trigger
  • Peak of Inflated Expectations
  • Trough of Disillusionment
  • Slope of Enlightenment
  • Plateau of Productivity.

Which – as they explain – helps to “separate the hype from the real”. For further insights on this, read 5 Trends Emerge in the Gartner Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies.



7) System Development Lifecycle (SDLC)

“Operations keeps the lights on, strategy provides a light at the end of the tunnel, but project management is the train engine that moves the organisation forward.” Joy Gumz

Over the last 15 years I have consciously or unconsciously used the SDLC model in many projects including helping start ups with business plans, building marketing strategies, supporting change management and of course developing IT solutions. This simple model is an method in defining the steps in the project plan through there are various other tools.

The SDLC, also known as the Application Development Life-Cycle, describes the process (often used in IT and Systems) is for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an process or information system.

There are six key stages in the SDLC cycle:

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development and Testing
  • Implementation
  • Documentation, and;

An additional note on the importance of this from Innovative Architects: ”The life cycle approach of any project is a time-consuming process. Even though some steps are more difficult than others, none are to be overlooked. An oversight could prevent the entire system from functioning as planned.”

For additional project planning tools Smart Insights have an article with more suggestions, including SWOT Analysis, the BCG Matrix, more on the Product Lifecycle Model, the Pestle Analysis Model and the BCG Matrix.


8) Bespoke Project Planning Tools

“Vision without action is a dream. Action without vision is simply passing the time. Action with Vision is making a positive difference.” Joel Barker

At Prana Business Consulting we also create bespoke project planning tools based on our experience as well as specific client needs.

  • Prana Business Flow Pyramid
  • B2B marketing model
  • Digital marketing Flowchart, and our
  • Marketing to Moms Model.


Jainita Khatri, Managing Director, Prana Business Consulting

Written by Jainita Khatri. She is the founder of Prana Business Consulting and has 15 years of practical experience in marketing for blue chip organisations and has consulted extensively with entrepreneurial and medium sized businesses. Jainita’s passion lies in digital marketing – helping businesses to build their brands and businesses. Jainita is a speaker at conferences and guest lectures Monash University and UJ on various marketing related topics.



About Prana Business Consulting

Prana Business Consulting is a marketing partner to your business.  Using omni-channel principles, Prana builds a connection between your brand and your client. Prana drives high performance and tangible results in Marketing, Branding, CRM and Social Media. Prana leverages industry specialists to deliver customized solutions for baby, beauty, health and wellness brands, locally and internationally. Prana is a level 1 BBBEE certified company.

Email: info@pranabusinessconsulting.com.www82.jnb2.host-h.net

Phone: +27 (0) 11 794 1409 / + 27 (0) 83 414 9796

Facebook / YouTube / Twitter / LinkedIn


10 steps to rejuvenate the mind and body

Creativity and innovation are essential to success in business and marketing today.  But creativity can never be an endless flow of ideas and outputs.  We get tired.  We need time to recharge.  We need to switch off.  And in doing that, counter-intuitively, the creative process actually works during this ‘hibernation’ period.  Continually stimulated with meetings, traffic, news and social media, December is a good time to wind down and allow relaxation to engulf our beings.

As the year bids farewell, we have to push through to the holidays, and if you are anything like me you find this merry season stressful too!

It’s all too easy to have a runaway a mind or have it so full of thoughts that you feel like you’re herding goats! There are definitely days when it’s going a million miles per minute in all different directions. Those days make it nearly impossible to shut down the mental chatter or focus on anything. Stress and worry clog up your mental processes.

Many of us are working longer hours for less money and facing all kinds of stress, so it’s no wonder that we find it hard to unwind and relax when this time of the year comes around. Use your holidays to distress As well as getting enough sleep, working out and eating well , spending quality time with the family and yourself .



What the Science Says: why is distressing important to us and our daily living?

One of the most powerful tools a psychologist can use is actually nothing new, said Herbert Benson, MD, at APA’s Annual Convention. In fact, it’s an approach that’s been around for millennia, yet its full potential remains untapped.

Benson was referring to the relaxation response, a physical state of deep rest that changes a person’s physical and emotional responses to stress.

Benson, of Harvard Medical School and the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, discovered the relaxation response’s power to reduce stress in the 1960s. But his subsequent research found that the approach is really no different from what people have done for centuries through prayer, chanting and repetitive motion.

Today, scientists have shown that such practices lower heart rates, blood pressure and oxygen consumption, and they alleviate the symptoms associated with a vast array of conditions, including hypertension, arthritis, insomnia, depression, infertility, cancer, anxiety, even aging.

His latest research, published in the online journal Public Library of Science ONE (July 2), suggests that practicing the relaxation response can actually lead to genomic activity changes. In the study, his team of researchers looked at how the relaxation response affected each of the body’s 40,000 genes and found that, compared with a control group; those who regularly used the relaxation response induced anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory changes that counteracted the effects of stress on the body.

In general, studies show that with consistent practice, relaxation techniques can potentially reduce symptoms or improve outcomes in the following conditions:

  • Stress
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Pain
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Anxiety
  • Infertility
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Panic disorders
  • Chronic tension headaches
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Insomnia
  • Psoriasis
  • Arthritis
  • Labor and child birth



It is extremely important that usual medical care and advice be followed for these conditions as well. Relaxation techniques are meant to complement usual medical

So let me share with you how to distress and relax so that you can start 2018 refreshed and rejuvenated. Here’s 10 tips that are essential to have a relaxed and fulfilling holiday and 2018.








I can’t emphasize enough how important it is. No matter how many pleasant things you do, if you don’t learn to be grateful you will always see things negatively.









Life has a lot of simple things you can enjoy. But if you move too fast you will overlook most of them. So don’t be in a hurry.  Don’t move too quick. Slow down and pay attention to the world around you. Most of the ways I’m about to share will work well only if you slow down.






When you’re feeling sad, angry, hurt or upset, physical activity can help relax both your mind and your body. Use physical activities like walking, hiking, stretching, jogging, running, meditation or riding a bicycle to release the pressure. Even a five- or ten-minute movement break can go a long way toward helping your body manage the symptoms of stress.









Like many people, you may get stressed out when you feel like you don’t have enough time to accomplish what you need to accomplish in a given day. But you can “make” more time for yourself by managing your time better. Time management means different things to different people. For some, it may be as simple as jotting down a “to do” list. For others, it involves using daily planners and organizers to schedule their day. Sometimes you just need to learn how to handle interruptions that tend to devour your time.









Are you a perfectionist like me,  who doesn’t believe that anyone else could possibly complete a task as well as you do? People with perfectionist tendencies have trouble delegating work, usually because they subscribe to the old adage “If you want something done right, you have to do it yourself.” Perhaps you’re afraid that you’ll lose control of the situation if you let someone else help you. To be able to delegate responsibility, you need to accept that “my way” of doing things is not the only effective one. Besides being a great way to reduce stress, delegating responsibility will help you build more trusting relationships.









When you’re tense, your body lets you know. Your heart beats faster, your muscles tighten, your breathing becomes shallow, and you experience any of a number of other familiar symptoms, such as a headache or queasy stomach. Start noticing your body’s signs of stress and slow down or take a break when your body is signaling you. You can also take steps to build your physical reserves, such as getting plenty of sleep and eating nutritious, balanced meals.








Sleep improves your ability to handle stressful situations. Provide an environment that allows you to get enough peaceful sleep each night. If there is a problem that interferes with your sleep, find a way to eliminate it.

For example, if your partners snoring disturb you, either sleep in another room, wear ear plugs or find ways to eliminate or reduce the problem.









Baths have been scientifically proven to relieve stress, aid in sleep as well as having numerous health benefits including reducing blood pressure, clearing toxins and relieving muscle and joint pain. Couple a warm bath with a handful Epsom salts, a few drops of essential oils, candles and a relaxation playlist for ultimate relaxation.







Yoga has been practiced for thousands of years and is known for the numerous benefits it has on the mind and body. If you practice yoga regularly you will find it not only relieves stress but also prevents it as well as reducing depression and anxiety resulting in an overall better mood.

Evening yoga reduces mental and physical tension allowing you to unwind and drift off to sleep that much sooner.








Laughter is one of the healthiest antidotes to stress. Researchers have discovered that exposure to humor causes a measurable decrease in stress hormones, including epinephrine and dopamine, and an increase in immune system activity. When we laugh, even smile, blood flow to the brain increases and endorphins (painkilling hormones that give us a sense of well-being) are released.






Switch Off For The Holidays

Emerge from your holiday fresh-faced and ready to rumble, by switching off from your online life. Even though you’re on holiday and sunning yourself somewhere beautiful, it can feel impossible to switch off from your work life completely. That’s where a ‘digital detox’ could be a good idea. While it can seem a little daunting at first, it can be done!

Living in the digital age we’re constantly connected whether that be to work or the media. We’re just one quick swipe, one email, one notification or one phone call away, never allowing us to switch off and unwind which is heavily impacting on our mental health. Since the digital age began there has been a dramatic rise in stress, anxiety and depression especially in the younger generations and the corporate world.


So from all of us at Prana have a wonderful and relaxing holiday season!









Written by Prisha Debipersad, Prisha has a love for travel and has lived in Germany and Australia, gaining work and life experience along the way. Being proudly South African she is happy to be back on her home ground. She currently is completing her masters degree as well as providing valuable support to Prana as a Marketing Assistant. .